Bibliography

 

acemoglu, daron, james a. robinson. economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. cambridge: cambridge university press, 2006. pp. 1-87.

acemoglu, johnson, robinson, yared. "income and democracy." the american economic review, 98(3), 2008. pp. 808-842.

adams, robert m. "divine commands and the social nature of obligation." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT. 

Ajami, fouad. the arab predicament: arab political thought and practice since 1967. cambridge: cambridge university press, 1992, ch. 1.

AKUTAGAWA, RYUNOSUKE. "IN A GROVE." RASHOMON AND OTHER STORIES. NEW YORK, ny: LIVERLIGHT PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 1952. PP. 17-30.


Ali, Ahmed. Al-Qurʻān: A Contemporary Translation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2001. ch. 1-3, 6, 8-12, 14, 16-18, 21-22, 24-34, 36, 39-41, 43, 45-49, 51-54, 57-63, 65-66, 68, 71, 73-74, 77, 80-81, 83, 85-86, 89-94, 96-97, 100-114. Print.

anderson, benedict. imagined communities. london: verso, 1983. pp, 1-65.

Anderson, Liam D., Ewan W. Anderson, and Ian M. Cool. An atlas of middle eastern affairs. Second ed. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014. pp. 1-81, 103-106, 114-124, 162-166, 180-184, 204-215, 249-269, 285-291. Print.

Antenori, Frank, and Hans Halberstadt. Roughneck Nine-One: The Extraordinary Story of a special forces A-team at war. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Pp. 1-243. 

Aristotle. "politics." Great political thinkers: plato to the present. eds. william ebenstein and alan ebenstein. Sixth ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013.

aristotle. "Nicomachean ethics." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

arthur, john. "morality, religion and conscience." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

ashworth, scott, et al. "design, inference, and the strategic logic of suicide terrorism." american political science review 102.02, 2008. pp, 269-273.


Axelrod, Robert M., and W. D. Hamilton. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic, 1984. Print. ch. 1, 2, 3, 7.

BAKER, PETER. "AWAITING NEXT U.S. PRESIDENT: A SPLINTERED MIDDLE EAST IN FREE FALL." NEW YORK TIMES, 2016.

bass, G.H. "what really causes civil war?" the new york times, august 13, 2006.
 

banNa, hasan, charles wendell. five tracts of hasan al-banna (1906-1949): a selection from the majmu'at rassall al-iman al-shahid hasan al-banna. berkeley: university of california press, 1978. pp, 46-47, 103-131.

bard, kathryn a. "the emergence of the egyptian state (c.3200-2686 bc). ian shaw. the oxford history of ancient egypt. oxford university press, 2014. pp. 57-82.

barkey, karen. empire of difference: the ottomans in comparative perspective. cambridge university press, 2008. Ch. 1.

barkin, samuel, bruce cronin. "the state and the nation: changing norms and the rules of sovereignty in international relations." international organization, vol. 48, no. 1. (winter 1994). pp. 107-130.

barth, fredrick. "ethnic groups and boundaries." ETHNICITY, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1996. CH. 12.

bates, robert. "modernization, ethnic competition and the rationality of politics in contemporary africa." state versus ethnic claims: african policy dilemmas. eds. donald rothchild and victor olorunsola. boulder, co: westview press, 1983. 152-171.


Beckwith, Charlie A., and Donald Knox. Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. Print.

bedau, hugo adam. "abolishing the death PENALTY even for the worst murderers." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1989. Print.

Behrens-abouseif, doris. "The Facade of the aqmar mosque in the context of fatimid ceremonial," muqarnas 9 (1992), 29-38.

Bellavia, David, and John R. Bruning. House to House: A Soldier's Memoir. New York: Free, 2008. Print.

Bellin, eva. "The robustness of authoritarianism in the middle east: exceptionalism in comparative perspective," comparative politics, vol. 36, No. 2 (jan., 2004), pp. 139-157.

Bennet, jonathan. "the conscience of huckleberry finn." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

bergen, peter, katherine tiedemann. "washington's phantom war: the effects of the us drone programs in pakistan." foreign affairs 90, 2011. pp, 12-18.

BERMAN, RUSSEL. "REPUBLICANS TRY TO REIN IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL." THE ATLANTIC, 2016.


Bernays, Edward L., and Mark Crispin. Miller. Propaganda. Brooklyn: Ig Pub., 2005. Print.

biddle, S, Friedman, J, shapiro, J. "testing the surge: why did violence decline in iraq in 2007?" international security, 2012. 

Bin Laden, Osama, Bruce B. Lawrence, and James Howarth. Messages to the world: the statements of Osama Bin Laden. London: Verso, 2005. Pp. xi-xxiii, 1-14, 106-129, 233-236.


Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1999. Print.

Bradley, Rusty, and Kevin Maurer. Lions of Kandahar: The Story of a Fight Against All Odds. New York: Bantam, 2011. Print.

brandt, richard b. "the real and alleged problems of utilitarianism." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

braudel, fernand. civilization and capitalism. volume i. trans. sian reynolds. berkeley: u of california press, 1992 p. 51-92, p. 104-158.

Brody, baruch. "morality and rational self-interest." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Butler, Smedley D. War Is a Racket: The Antiwar Classic by America's Most Decorated General, Two Other Anti-interventionist Tracts, and Photographs from the Horror of It. Los Angeles: Feral House, 2003. Print.

byman, daniel. "After the storm: u.s. policy toward iraq since 1991." political science quarterly, 115(4): 2000. pp. 493-516.

callahan, daniel. "aging and the ends of medicine." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Calvert, randall. "leadership and its basis in problems of social coordination." international political science review 13, 1992. pp, 7-24.

CANES-WRONE, HOWELL, AND LEWIS. "TOWARD A BROADER UNDERSTANDING OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER: A REEVALUATION OF THE TWO PRESIDENCIES THESIS." JOURNAL OF POLITICS, 70(1): 2008. PP. 1-16.

cantori, louis. "egypt." eds. Robert Owen Freedman. The Middle East enters the twenty-first century. Gainesville, FL: U Press of Florida, 2002. pp. 229-246.

carroll, R. "civil war in the shadow of intervention." unpublished manuscript. 2015.

cassidy, joseph. "10 ways to fix america's ailing state department." foreign policy, 2015

chakravarti, anand. social power and everyday class relations: agrarian transformation in north bihar. new dehli: thousand oaks, calif. sage publications, 2001. pp. 65-77, 149-169.

chandra, kanchan. "ethnic parties and democratic stability." perspectives on politics 3(2): 2005. pp, 235-252.

chandra, wilkinson and van evera. "cumulative findings in the study of ethnic politics." symposium in apsa-cp, winter 2001.

chang, leslie. factory girls: from village to city in a changing china. new york: spiegel and grau, 2008. pp. 3-16, 44-71, 98-119.

chiozza, Giacomo and hein goemans. leaders and international politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Chapters 1-3, 6.

cicero. "The republic and the laws." Great political thinkers: plato to the present. eds. william ebenstein and alan ebenstein. Sixth ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013.

collier, p. et al. breaking the conflict trap. the world bank and oxford university press, 2003. pp, 93-97, 100-118.

collier, p, hoeffler, a. "greed and grievance in civil war." oxford economic papers, 56(4), 2004. pp, 563-595.

cook, steven. The struggle for Egypt from Nasser to Tahrir Square. New York, NY: Oxford U Press, 2013. Ch 1 &2.

Couch, Dick. Chosen Soldier: The Making of a Special Forces Warrior. New York: Crown, 2007. Print.

Couch, Dick. The warrior elite: the forging of Seal Class 228. Three Rivers Press, 2013. pp. 1-362.

crenshaw, martha. "the logical of terrorism: terrorist behavior as a product of strategic choice." origins of terrorism: psychologies, ideologies, theologies, state of mind, ed. walter reich, 2nd ed., 1998. pp, 7-24. 

crone, patricia. god's rule: government and islam. new york: columbia university press, 2004. pp, 3-16, 393-398.

cutts dougherty, katherine, margaret eisenhart and paul webley. "the role of social representations and national identities in the development of territorial knowledge: a study of political socialization in argentina and england." american educational research journal 29.4, 1992. pp, 809-835.

deutsch, karl w. "nationalism and social communication." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 4.


Durant, Michael J., Steven Hartov, and Robert L. Johnson. The Night Stalkers: Top Secret Missions of the U.S. Army's Special Operations Aviation Regiment. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2006. Pp. 1-317.

Ebenstein, William, and Alan O. Ebenstein. Great political thinkers: Plato to the present. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. pp. 3-18, 75-84, 127-130. Print.

Eickeleman, dale, James Piscatori. Muslim politics. princeton: princeton university press, 1996. pp, 11-45.

eller, jack, reed coughlin. "the poverty of primordialism."  ETHNICITY, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1996. CH. 7.


Elster, Jon. Explaining Social Behavior: More Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. PP, 3-171.

engerman, stanley and kenneth sokoloff. "factor endowments, inequality, and paths of development among new world economies." nber working paper 9259. 2002.

erikson, thomas h. "ethnicity, race, class and nation." ethnicity, eds., john hutchinson and anthony d. smith, oxford: oxford up, 1996. ch. 4.

Evans, Craig A, and Jeremiah Johnston. Jesus and the Jihadis: confronting the rage of Isis: the theology driving the ideology. Shippensburg, PA, Destiny Image Publishers, Inc., 2015. pp. 7-160.

evans, G, sahnoun, M. "the responsibility to protect." Foreign affairs. 2002.

Fanon, Frantz. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press, 2011. pp. 1-251. Print.

fearon, james. "commitment problems and the spread of ethnic conflict," chapter 5 in david a. lake and donald rothchild, the international spread of ethnic conflict: fear diffusion, and escalation. princeton, NJ: princeton university press, 1998. pp, 107-126.

fearon, james. "domestic political audiences and the escalation of international disputes." american political science review, 88 (3); 577-592. september 1994.

Fearon, james, laitin, d. "ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war." american political science review, 97(01), 2003. pp, 75-90.

Fearon, james. "rationalist explanations for war," in international organization, vol. 49 (3), summer 1995. pp, 379-414.

Fearon, james. "signaling foreign policy interests- tying hands versus sinking costs," in journal of conflict resolution, 41 (1): 68-90 february 1997.

Fearon, james. "why do some civil wars last so much longer than others?" journal of peace research, 41(3), 2004. pp, 275-301.

ferguson, james, larry lohmann. "the anti-politics machine 'development' and bureaucratic power in lesotho." the ecologist, vol. 24, no. 5, september/october 1994. pp. 176-181.

filkins, D. "after america." the new yorker.

Fisher, M. "9 questions about israel-gaza you were too EMBARRASSED to ask." washington post, 2012. freeman, chas. "recovering diplomatic agility." remarks to the watson institute for international and public affairs, brown university, 2016.
 
Fromm, Erich, and Ruth Nanda. Anshen. The Art of Loving. New York: Harper & Row, 1956. Print. 

Fukuyama, Francis. The origins of political order: from prehuman times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011. Print. ch. 2.

fuller, lon l. "the problem of the grudge informer." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT. 

gallagher, john, and ronald robinson. "the imperialism of free trade." the economic history review 6.1 (1953): 1-15.

Geary, Patrick J. The myth of nations: the medieval origins of Europe. Princeton University Press, 2003. pp. 1-174.

geertz, clifford. "primordial ties." ETHNICITY, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1996. CH. 6.

Gellner, ernest. "nationalism and high cultures." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 10.

gellner, ernest. "nationalism and modernization." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 9.

gerges, fawaz, a. "regional security after the gulf crisis: the american role." journal of palestine studies, vol. 20, no. 4, summer 1991. pp. 55-68.


Geri, Jeffrey, and Marian Lebor. Culture Smart! Israel. London: Kuperard, 2014. Print.

Goemans, Henk. War and punishment. princeton, nj: princeton university press, 2000. ch. 1-3.

GOLDBERG, JEFFREY. "A WITHERING CRITIQUE OF OBAMA'S NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL." THE ATLANTIC, 2014.

Gordon, P, Dobbins, J, martini, j. "a realistic peace plan for syria needs to begin with an immediate ceasefire." washington post, 2015.

gordon, michael r. and general bernard e. trainor. the general's war. boston, ma: little, brown and company. preface. pp. vii-xv.

Guevara, Ernesto, and Marc Becker. Guerrilla Warfare. University of Nebraska Press, 1998.pp. v-xvii, 1-175.

HAASS, RICHARD N. "THE NEW MIDDLE EAST." FOREIGN AFFAIRS, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2006. 

Haass, Richard N. War of necessity: war of choice: a memoir of two Iraq wars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009. pp. xvii-xxv, 1-67, 116-153.

haney, eric l. inside delta force. New york, ny: bantam dell, 2002. pp. 231-253.

harb, imad. "the egyptian military in politics: disengagement or accommodation." the middle east journal, spring 2003. pp. 269-290.

Hardin, garrett. "the tragedy of the commons," science 1968, vol. 162: 1243-1248. 

Hardin, Russell. one for all: the logic of group conflict. princeton, NJ: princeton university press, 1995. Ch. 1-4.

harris, john. "the survival lottery." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Harsanyi, John. "advances in understanding rational behavior," chapter 3 in Jon elster, Rational choice. New york: NYU press, 1986. pp, 82-108.

hassan, nasra. "an arsenal of believers." new yorker, november 19, 2001. pp, 36-41.

hassner, ron e. war on sacred grounds. ithaca, ny: cornell university press, 2009. pp. xi-xvii, 1-182.

hechter, michael. "ethnicity and rational choice theory." ETHNICITY, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1996. CH. 15.

hendrick, stan, pierre vermeersch. "prehistory: from the palaeolithic to the badarian culture (c.700,000-4000 bc)." ian shaw. the oxford history of ancient egypt. oxford university press, 2014. pp. 16-40.

herbst, jeffery. states and power in africa: comparative lessons in authority and control. princeton up, 2000. ch 1-2, 4.

hinnebusch, raymond a. "the formation of the contemporary egyptian state from nasser and sadat to mubrarak." Eds. Oweiss, Ibrahim M. The political economy of contemporary Egypt. Washington, D.C: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown U, 1990. pp. 188-209.

hinnebusch, raymond a. "the middle east regional system." eds. Raymond Hinnebusch, and Anoushiravan Ehteshami. The foreign policies of Middle East states. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2014. pp. 30-53.

hobbes, thomas. "Leviathan: Morality as rational advantage." Scalet, Steven, and John Arthur. Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ninth ed. N.p.: Pearson, 2014. Print.

hobsbawm, eric. "the nation as invented tradition." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 12. 

HOFFMAN, BRUCE. Inside terrorism: Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: COLUMBIA U PRESS, 2006. Pp. ix-xvii, 1-295.


Homerin, T. Emil. "Echoes of a Thirsty Owl: Death and Afterlife in Pre-Islamic Arabic Poetry." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44.3 (1985): 165-84. Web.

horowitz, donald L. ethnic groups in conflict. berkeley: university of california press, 1985. ch. 7.

Hourani, Albert. A History of the arab peoples. london: Faber and faber, 1991, ch. 19, pp, 303. the emergence of nationalism.

HOWELL, WILLIAM G. AND JON C. PEVEHOUSE. "WHEN CONGRESS STOPS WARS: PARTISAN POLITICS AND PRESIDENTIAL POWER." FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER, 2007.

htun, mala. "is gender like ethnicity? the political representation of identity groups." perspectives in politics 2.3, 2004. pp, 439-458.

HUDSON, MICHAEL C. "TO PLAY THE HEGEMON: FIFTY YEARS OF U.S. POLICY TOWARD THE MIDDLE EAST." MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL, 50(3): 1996. PP. 329-343.

huntington, samuel p. political order in changing societies. new haven: yale up, 1969. pp. 1-8, 32-92.

Huntington, Samuel P. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.

huth, paul, sarah croco, benjamin appel. "does international law promote the peaceful settlement of international disputes? evidence from the study of territorial conflicts since 1945." american political science review, 105(2), 2011. pp. 415-436.

huth, paul, sarah croco, benjamin appel. "law and the use of force in world politics: the varied effects of law on the exercise of military power in territorial disputes." international studies quarterly, 56(1), 2012. pp. 17-31.

ignazi, P. "the silent counter revolution." european journal of political research 22, 1992. pp, 3-34.

Ikram, Khalid. The egyptian economy: performance, policies, and issues. London: Routledge, 2006. pp. 85-116.

inglehart, ronald; pippa norris. "the true clash of civilizations," foreign policy, no. 135. (mar.-apr., 2003), pp. 62-70.

Ingraham, Laura. The Hillary trap: looking for power in all the wrong places. Hyperion, 2000. pp. vii-x, 1-228.

jervis, robert. "cooperation under the security dilemma," world politics 30, jan, 1978. pp, 167-214.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. 3rd ed. Oakland, CA: U of California Press, 2003. Pp. xi-xvii, 1-46.

kant, immanuel. "the fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Kaplan, eben. "crisis guide: the israeli-palestinian conflict." cfr.org. council on foreign relations, 16 apr. 2008. web. 15 jul. 2016.

kaplan, robert D. "hunting the taliban in las vegas." atlantic monthly 298.2, 2006. pp, 81-83.

kedourie, elie. "nationalism and self-determination." nationalism, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 8.

Kilcullen, D. the accidental guerrilla. oxford university press, 2009. ch. 3.

king, rev. martin luther jr. "letter from a birmingham jail." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

kopp, harry and charles gillespie. career diplomacy: life and work in the u.s. foreign service, washington dC: georgetown university press, 2008. pp. 10-50.

korany, bahgat and ali dessouki. "globilzation and arab foreign policies: constraints or marginalization." eds. Bahgat korany and ali dessouki. The foreign policies of Arab states: the challenge of globalization. Cairo: The American U in Cairo Press, 2010. pp. 45-65.

koschade, stuart. "a social network analysis of jemmah islamiyah: the applications to counterterrorism and intelligence." studies in conflict & terrorism 29.6, 2006. pp, 559-575.

krueger, alan, and jitka maleckova. "education, poverty and terrorism: is there a causal connection?" the journal of economic perspectives 17.4, 2003. pp, 119-144. 

Kuran, timur. "now out of never: the element of surprise in the east european revolution of 1989," in world politics, vol. 44, no. 1, october 1991. pp, 7-48.

Kurzman, Charles. The unthinkable revolution in iran. cambridge, MA: Harvard University press, 2004. ch. 1.

kydd, andrew and barbara walter. "the strategies of terrorism." international security 31(1): 2006. pp, 49-80.


Kyle, Chris, Scott McEwen, and Jim DeFelice. American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. New York: W. Morrow, 2012. Print.

Kyle, Chris, William Doyle, Jim DeFelice, and Taya Kyle. American Gun: A History of the U.S. in Ten Firearms. New York: William Morrow, 2013. Print.

laitin, david. "hegemony and religious conflict." bringing the state back in. ed. r.b. evans, D. rueschmeyer, and t. skocpol. cambridge: cambridge up, 1985. pp, 285-316.

lake, D. "two cheers for bargaining theory: assessing rationalist explanations of the iraq war." international security, 2011.

lawrence, bruce. messages to the world: the statements of osama bin laden. london: verso, 2005. pp, 23-30; 58-62.

lee, alexander. "who becomes a terrorist?: poverty, education, and the origins of political violence." world politics 63.02, 2011. pp, 203-245.

leeman, nicholas. "the next world order." the new yorker, 2002.

lenin, V.I. imperialism: the highest stage of capitalism. london, penguin, 1939. ch. 6-7.

lenin, V.I. The right of nations to self-determination: select writings. new york: international publishers, 1951. pp, 65-85.


Lester, Toby. What Is the Koran?: By Toby Lester. Amherst (Mass.): U of Massachusetts, 1999. Print.

Levitsky, steven, lucan a. way. "the rise of competitive authoritarianism i," journal of democracy 13, no. 2 (april 2002), pp. 51-65.

Levy, Jack. "loss aversion, framing effects, and international conflict, perspectives from prospect theory," in manus midlarsky (ed.), handbook of war studies II, an arbor: university of michigan press, 2000: 193-221.

li, quan. "does democracy promote or reduce transnational terrorist incidents?" journal of conflict resolution 49.2, 2005. pp, 278-297.

lia, brynjar. the society of muslim brothers in egypt: the rise of an islamic mass movement 1928-1942. ithaca press, 1998. pp, 53-91.

Liberman, Peter. Does conquest pay? the exploitation of occupied industrial societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U Press, 1998. pp. 1-157.

Lijphart, arend. "constitutional choices for new democracies." journal of democracy, vol. 2 no. 1, 1991, pp. 72-84.

lijphart, arend. "constitutional design for divided societies." journal of democracy 15(2): 2004. pp, 96-109.

lipset, seymour. political man. new york: doubleday, 1963. ch. 2.

Litvak, Meir. The islamization of the palestinian-israeli conflict: the case of hamas. middle east studies 34. 1998. pp. 148-163.

lowenthal, mark m. intelligence: from secrets to policy. 2003, chapter 9. pp. 139-152.

Luttwak, E. "give war a chance." foreign affairs. 1999.

macintyre, alasdair. "is patriotism a virtue?" SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.


Makow, Henry. Illuminati: The Cult That Hijacked the World. Winnipeg, MB: Silas Green, 2009. Print.

malek, jaromir. "the old kingdom (c.2686-2160 bc)." ian shaw. the oxford history of ancient egypt. xford university press, 2014. pp. 83-107.

mann, michael. the sources of social power. volume 1. cambridge: cambridge up, 1986. ch. 1.

marx, karl. "wage labor and capitol." in selected works. new york: international publishers, 1968.

mearsheimer, john j., stephen walt. "the israel lobby and u.s. foreign policy." london review of books, vol. 29, no. 6, march 23, 2006. pp. 1-42.

Mearsheimer, John J. Why Leaders Lie: The Truth About Lying in International Politics. New York: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.

meguid, bonnie m. party competition between unequals: strategies and electoral fortunes in western europe. cambridge: cambridge UP, 2008. ch. 1-2, 6-7.  

midant-reynes, beatrix. "The naqada period (c.4000-3200 bc)." ian shaw. the oxford history of ancient egypt. xford university press, 2014. pp. 41-56.

Midgley, mary. "trying out one's new sword." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

migdal, joel s. strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the third world. princeton university press, 1998. pp. 3-41.

mill, john stuart. "utilitarianism." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Mishal, Shaul, Avraham sela. The palestinian hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence. New york: columbia university press. 2000. ch. 1.

moore, barrington. the social origins of dictatorship and democracy; lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. boston: beacon press, 1966. ch. 7-8.

morgenthau, hans. "the mainsprings of american foreign policy: the national interest vs. moral abstractions." american political science review 44 (4), 1950. pp. 833-854.

morris, benny. "and now for some facts." spme, 2006. 

Murden, Simon. "The Impact of the Global Economy in Muslim Countries." Islam, the Middle East, and the New Global Hegemony. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002. 93-129. Print.

murphy, alexander b. "historical justifications for territorial claims." annals of the association of american geographers. vol. 80, no. 4. pp. 531-548.

murphy, alexander b. "nationals claims to territory in the modern state system: geographical considerations." geopolitics, vol. 7, no. 2 (autumn), 2002. pp. 193-214.

Muthoo, Abhinay. "a non-technical introduction to bargaining theory," world economics 1(2): pp, 145-166.


Myerson, Daniel. Blood and Splendor: The Lives of Five Tyrants, from Nero to Saddam Hussein. New York: Perennial, 2000. Print.

nairn, tom. "the maladies of development." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 11.

Nasser, Rabbat. "perception of architecture in mamluk sources," mamluk studies review 6 (2002), 155-176.

national intelligence council. prospects for iraq's stability: a challenging road ahead. 2007.

NEUSTADT, RICHARD. "PRESIDENTIAL POWER." PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF AMERICAN POLITICS, 5TH EDITION, EDS. SAMUEL KERNELL AND STEVEN S. SMITH. WASHINGTON, D.C.: CQ PRESS, 2012. PP. 254-274.

newhouse, john. "diplomacy, inc." foreign affairs, may/june, 2009. pp. 73-92.

NORTH, DOUGLAS AND BARRY R. WEINGAST. "CONSTITUTIONS AND COMMITMENT: THE EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC CHOICE IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND." THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY, 49(4) 1989: PP. 803-832.

north, douglas. structure and change in economic history. new york: norton, 1981. ch. 1-4, 11.

nozick, robert. "the entitlement theory." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

ollivant, d. countering the new orthodoxy: reinterpreting counterinsurgency in iraq. the new america foundation, 2011.

o'neill, onora. "kant and utilitarianism contrasted." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

ORNSTEIN, NORMAL F. AND THOMAS E. MANN. "WHEN CONGRESS CHECKS OUT." FOREIGN AFFAIRS, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER, 2006.


Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1954. Print.

ostrom, elinor. "collective action and the evolution of social norms," in the journal of economic perspectives vol. 14, no. 3, summer 2000. pp, 137-158. 


Owen, Mark, and Kevin Maurer. No Easy Day: The Autobiography of a Navy SEAL: The Firsthand Account of the Mission That Killed Osama Bin Laden. London: Penguin Group, 2013. Print.

palmer, michael a. guardians of the gulf: a history of america's expanding role in the persian gulf, 1833-1992. new york, ny: simon and schuster, 1992. pp. 1-84, 243-249.

pan, e. "middle east: peace plans background." council on foreign relations, 2005.

Pape, Robert. "when duty calls: a pragmatic standard of humanitarian intervention." international security. 2012.

parsons, michael. the falklands war. sutton publishing, 2000. pp. 1-112.


Paul, Ron. End the Fed. New York: Grand Central Pub., 2009. Print.

piazza, james a. "incubators of terror: do failed and failing states promote transnational terrorism?" international studies quarterly 52.3, 2008. pp, 469-488.

Pinker, Steven. The Better Angels of Our Nature Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Penguin Group USA, 2012. Pp. xxi-xxvii, 1-696. 

Plaster, John L. SOG: The Secret Wars of Americas Commandos in Vietnam. New York, NY, Simon & Schuster, 1997. pp. 1-342.

plato. "crito." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Plato. "The Republic." Great political thinkers: plato to the present. eds. william ebenstein and alan ebenstein. Sixth ed.Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013.

plitnick, mitchel, chris toensing. "the israel lobby in perspective." middle east report 243, 37, 2007.

POLLACK, KENNETH M. "FIGHT OR FLIGHT: AMERICA'S CHOICE IN THE MIDDLE EAST." FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MARCH/APRIL, 2016.

porta, della donatella. social movements, political violence, and the state: a comparative analysis of italy and germany. cambridge: cambridge up, 1995. pp, 36-50, 137-142.

Posner, daniel. "the political salience of cultural difference: why chewas and tumbukas are allies in zambia and adversaries in malawi." american political science review 98.4, 2004. pp, 529-545. 


Powers, William. Twelve by Twelve: A One-room Cabin off the Grid & beyond the American Dream. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2010. Print.

Putnam, Robert. "diplomacy and domestic politics, the logic of two-level games," in international organization 42, summer 1988: pp, 427-460.

putnam, robert, robert leonardi, raffaella nanetti. making democracy work: civic traditions in modern italy. princeton university press, 1994. pp. 83-120.

QUANDT, WILLIAM. "NEW U.S. POLICIES FOR A NEW MIDDLE EAST." THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE UNITED STATES: HISTORY, POLITICS AND IDEOLOGIES, EDS. DAVID W. LESCH AND MARK L. HAAS. BOULDER, CO: WESTVIEW PRESS, 2012. PP. 507-518.

qutb, sayyid. milestones. birmingham: maktabah, 2006. pp, 63-98.

rapoport, david. "the four waves of modern terrorism." attacking terrorism: elements of a grand strategy, eds. audrey kurth cronin and james m. ludes. pp, 46-73. 

rawls, john. "a theory of justice." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

rawls, john. "inequality and other problems with nozick's libertarianism." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

reiter, d. "exploring the BARGAINING model of war." perspectives on politics, 1(01), 2003. pp, 27-43.

renan, ernest. "qu'est-ce qu'une nation?" NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 1.

rosati, jerel and james scott. the politics of united states foreign policy, 3rd edition. chapter 7: the military establishment, 2010. pp. 159-196. 

Rosenberg, Donna., eds. World Mythology: An Anthology Of The Great Myths And Epics. Lincolnwood, Ill. : NTC Pub. Group, 1999. Pp. 1-21, 26-57, 82-89, 291-295, 330-335, 467-477, 625-633.

ROTHKOPF, DAVID. RUNNING THE WORLD: THE INSIDE STORY OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL AND THE ARCHITECTS OF AMERICAN POWER. NEW YORK, NY: PUBLIC AFFAIRS, 2005. CH. 1, PP. 3-21.

russel, richard l. "cia's strategic intelligence in iraq." september 11, terrorist attacks, and u.s. foreign policy. ed. demetrios james caraley. new york, ny: the academy of political science, 2002. pp. 111-127.

Ryan, cheyney. "the morality of pacifism." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Sacco, Joe. Safe area GORAžde: The War in Eastern Bosnia, 1992-95. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics, 2001. Pp. 1-225.

Said, Edward W. "The Clash of Ignorance." The Nation. The Nation, 29 June 2015. Web. 01 July 2015.

Salih, Tayeb. Season of migration to the north. Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Review, 2009. pp. vii-xx, 1-139.


Scahill, Jeremy. Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army. New York, NY: Nation, 2007. Pp. 1-378.

scheffler, samuel. "is terrorism morally distinctive?" SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Schelling, thomas. "the art of commitment," in arms and influence. new haven: yale university press, 1966. ch. 2.

Schelling, thomas. "thermostats, lemons, and other families of models," Chapter 3 in Thomas schelling, micromotives and macrobehavior. New York: Norton, 1978.

Schelling, thomas. the strategy of conflict. cambridge, ma: harvard university press, 1960/1980. Ch. 2-3. 

Schultz, kenneth. democracy and coercive diplomacy. new york: cambridge university press, 2000. ch. 2-4. 

Schwalm, Tony. The Guerrilla Factory: the Making of Special Forces Officers, the Green Berets. Free Press, 2014.

Scott, James C. The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale U Press, 2011. Pp. ix-xviii, 1-337.

sela, Avraham. The Decline of the arab-israeli conflict. ch. 8, pp, 133-150.


Sells, Michael Anthony., and ʻAlqamah Ibn ʻAbadah. Desert Tracings: Six Classic Arabian Odes. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 1989. pp, 3-10; 32-44. Print.

Selten, richard. "the chain store paradox." theory and decision, 9(2): 127159.

Sen, amartya. "gender & cooperative conflict," in irene tinker, ed, persistent inequalities. new york: oxford UNIVERSITY press. ch. 8.

sen, amartya. poverty and famines: an essay on entitlements and deprivation. oxford, clarendon press, 1982. ch 1, 6.

serwer, D. "post-qaddafi instability in libya." council on foreign relations, 2011.

serwer, d. "libya's escalating civil war." council on foreign relations, 2015.

shaheen, jack g. "reel bad arabs: how hollywood vilifies a people." annals. apps588, july 2003. pp. 171-193.

shapiro, jacob n., david a. siegel. "underfunding in terrorist organizations." international studies quarterly 51.2, 2007. pp, 405-429.

shaw, ian. "Introduction: chronologies and cultural change in egypt." ian shaw. The oxford history of ancient egypt. oxford university press, 2014. pp. 1-15.

shaw, william. "Relativism in ethics." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

sick, gary. all fall down: america's tragic encounters with iran. new york, ny: penguin books, 1986. pp. 329-356.

silverstein, ken. "their men in washington." harper's magazine, july, 2007.

Sindal, Duncan. "coordination versus prisoner's dilemma: implications for international cooperation and regimes," in american political science review, 79 (4): 923-942, December 1985. 

smith, jane. "islam." women in world religions. eds. arvind sharma. new york: sate university of new york press, 1987. pp. 235-250.


Smith, Michael. Killer Elite: The Inside Story of America's Most Secret Special Operations Team. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006. Print. 

Smith, Thomas W. Alpha Bravo Delta Guide to American airborne forces. Indianapolis, In., Alpha Books, 2004. pp. ix-xxiii, 1-266.

Spaniel, William. Game Theory 101: Bargaining. CreateSpace, 2014. pp. 1-208.

stalin, joseph. "the nation." NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 2.

Stanton, Doug. Horse Soldiers: The Extraordinary Story of a Band of U.S. Soldiers Who Rode to Victory in Afghanistan. New York: Scribner, 2009. Print.


Stark, Rodney. God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades. New York: HarperOne, 2009. Print.

stern, jessica. "mind over martyr: how to deradicalize islamist extremists." foreign affairs, 2010. pp, 95-108.

stevenson, charles. america's foreign policy toolkit: key institutions and processes. washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002. ch. 3-4, 6, 8-10, 12.

stiglitz, joseph e. globalization and its discontents. s.i.: w w norton, 2017. pp. 3-39. print.

texas v. johnson. "flag burning as constitutionally protected." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

the 9/11 commission report. new york: w. w. norton, 2004. pp, 47-70; 145-173; 215-253.

thompson. e.p. the making of the english working class. london: victor gollncz, 1963. pp. 213-233, 267-313, 350-375.

tilly, charles. coercion, capitol, and european states, ad 990-1990. cambridge, MA: blackwell, 1992. ch. 1 & 2.

Tilly, charles. "mechanisms in political processes," in annual review of political science, vol. 4, june 2001, pp, 21-41.

tilly, charles. "terror, terrorism, terrorists." sociological theory 22(1): 2004. pp, 5-13. 

trevor-roper, hugh. "the invention of tradition: the highland tradition of scotland." the invention of tradition. eds. eric hobsbawm and terence ranger. cambridge: cambridge up, 1983.

Tversky, amos, daniel kahneman. "the framing of decisions and the psychology of choice," in jon elster (ed.), rational choice, new york, nyu press, 1986. ch. 5.

van den berghe, pierre. "does race matter?" ETHNICITY, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1996. CH. 9.

van den haag, ernest. "the ultimate punishment." SCALET, STEVEN, AND JOHN ARTHUR. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES: READINGS IN MORAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. NINTH ED. N.P.: PEARSON, 2014. PRINT.

Vatikiotis, P. J. The modern history of Egypt. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 1980. pp. 413-454.

WALT, STEPHEN M. "IS BARACK OBAMA MORE OF A REALIST THAN I AM?' FOREIGN POLICY, 2014. 

walter, barbara. "building reputation: why governments fight some separatists but not others." american journal of political science, 50(2), 2006. pp, 313-330.

Walter, barbara. "the critical barrier to civil war settlement," international organization, 51 (3), summer 1997. pp, 335-364.

waters, mary. ethnic options. berkeley: university of california press, 1990. ch. 1-3.

weber, max. "the nation."  NATIONALISM, EDS., JOHN HUTCHINSON AND ANTHONY D. SMITH, OXFORD: OXFORD UP, 1994. CH. 3.

weber, max. the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. ch 1 & 2.

weinbaum, marvin g. "The united states and afghanistan: from marginality to strategic concern." the middle east and the united states: history, politics, and ideologies, 5th edition, eds. david w. lesch and mark l. haas. boulder, co: westview press, 2011. pp: 412-432.

Weingast, barry, rui de figueiredo. "rationality of fear: political opportunism and ethnic conflict," in jack snyder and barbara watler (eds.), civil wars, insecurity, and intervention. new york: columbia university press, 1999.

Weingast, barry. "the political foundations of democracy and the rule of law," the american political science review, vol. 91, no. 2, june 1997. pp, 245-263.

weingast, barry. "the role of credible commitments in state finance." public choice 66 (1): 89-97 July 1990.

WILLINK, JOCKO, and Leif Babin. EXTREME OWNERSHIP: HOW U.S. NAVY SEALS LEAD AND WIN. NEW YORK, ST MARTINS PRESS, 2015. pp. 1-287.

X, Malcolm, Alex Haley, M. S. Handler, Attallah Shabazz, and Ossie Davis. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine , 2015. Pp. ix-xxx, 1-466.

YIANNOPOULOS, MILO. DANGEROUS. S.l.: SIMON & SCHUSTER, 2017. Pp. 1-256.

zacher, mark. "the territorial integrity norm: international boundaries and the use of force." international organization, vol. 55, no. 2 (spring, 2001). pp. 215-250.

zegart, amy. "that's spytainment." hoover digest, 1. 2013.

ZEGART, AMY. "WAIT, DID THE SYSTEM JUST WORK?" FOREIGN POLICY, 2013.

zenko, micah. "your official mission creep timeline of the u.s. war in syria." foreign policy, 2015.

zussman, asaf, noam zussman. "assassinations: evaluating the effectiveness of an israeli counterterrorism policy using stock market data." the journal of economic perspectives 20.2, 2006. pp, 193-206.